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北京赛车网址 SHIZHISHUYUZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANDEZHONGYANGCHUBANSHE,DUONIANLAIJIANCHIXUESHUCHUBAN,YIYOUXIUDEPINPAIXINGXIANGFUWUYUTUSHUGUANKEHU。2014NIAN,SHEKEWENXIANCHUBANSHEGUANPEIYEWUBUCHENGLI。YITUOWOSHE“QUANWEI、QIANYAN、YUANCHUANG”DEXUESHUCHUBANZIYUAN,BINGCHENGGUANPEIYING...

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甲骨文 | 换一个角度看乾隆和他的时代

甲骨文 | 换一个角度看乾隆和他的时代

2014-05-26 北京赛车网址

□文/定宜庄


北京赛车网址 ZAIZHONGGUO,QIANLONGHUANGDISHIJIAYUHUXIAODERENWU。TAZHIZHENGSHIJIANZUIZHANG,ZAITATONGZHIDEMANZHANGDE60NIANZHONG,“KANGQIANSHENGSHI”BEITUIZHIDINGSHENG,ZHEISHIJINTIANXIANGWANG“QIANGGUOMENG”DEZHONGGUORENWEIZHIJIAOAOBINGMIANHUAIBUYI。YINGSHIYUWENXUEZUOPINZHONGLISHISHUSHINIANBUSHUAIDEQINGGONGXI,GENGYIQIANLONGHUANGDIWEITICAI,YANYICHUCENGCHUBUQIONGDEZUYIGONGRENMENCHAYUFANHOUJINJINLEDAODEGUSHI。


北京赛车网址 CONGSHIXUEYANJIUDEJIAODULAISHUO,QIANLONGCHAOYESHIQINGCHAOLISHIZHONGZUIZHONGYAODEYIDUANSHIQI,ZAISHIJIAYANZHONG,TASHIQINGCHAOYOUSHENGZHUANSHUAIDEKAISHI,ZHEIZHONGYOUSHENGZHUANSHUAIDEQIJIHEGUOCHENGYIJICONGZHONGFANYINGCHUDEGEZHONGXIANXIANG,CONGLAIDOUSHISHIJIAGUANZHUDEJIEDIAN。ZUIJINERSANSHINIAN,WOGUOQINGSHIXUEJIEDUIQIANLONGDIJIQISUOTONGZHIDECHAODAIDEYANJIU,KANCHENGSHUOGUOLEILEI,JINQIANLONGHUANGDIDECHUANJI,JIUYIJINGYOULIUQIBUZHUANZHUWENSHI,DADUOSHUDOUCHUZIZHISHIDUONIAN、GONGLISHENHOUDEZHUANJIAZHISHOU,QIZHONGBUFASHANGCHENGZHIZUO,SUOSHEJIDEZHUDUOZHONGDASHIJIAN、ZHONGDAYITI,YIJINGBUXIANYUQIANLONGYICHAO,ERSHIYOUQINGYIDAINAIZHIZHENGGEZHONGGUOLISHIYANJIUZHONGDUONIANLAIPOWEIGUANZHUDEWENTI。


BUGUO,WOMENSHOUZHONGDEZHEIBU《QIANLONGDI》,QUEBUZAISHANGSHUTIJIDEFANCHOUZHINEI,YINWEITABINGFEICHUZIZHONGGUODEQINGSHIXUEJIAZHISHOU。BENSHUZUOZHEMark C.Elliott,ZHONGWENMINGOULIDE,SHIMEIGUOHAFODAXUEDONGYAXIHELISHIXIJIAOSHOU,TADEYANJIULINGYU,ZHUYAOSHI1600NIANYIHOUDEZHONGGUOSHIHENEILUYAZHOUSHI,YINQIDAIBIAOZUO《MANZHOUZHIDAO:BAQIYUQINGDAIZUQUNRENTONG》,ERBEISHIWEIJINNIANLAIZAIGUONEIPOSHOUZHENGYIDEMEIGUO“XINQINGSHI”XUEPAIDELINGJUNRENWUZHIYI。ZAIDANGJINDEZHONGGUOQINGSHIXUEJIE,YOUQINIANQINGYIDAIDEXUEZHEZHONG,BUZHIDAOTADERENKONGPABUDUO。DANSHIZHEIBUQIANLONGHUANGDIDECHUANJI,QUEBINGBUSHIYIBUCHUNXUESHUZHUANZHU,ERSHIYIBUYIYINGWENXIEZUO、MIANXIANGOUMEINEIXIEDUIZHONGGUOSHIGANXINGQUDEDUZHEDEDUWU,SHICHANGBEIMEIGUODEDAXUEZUOWEIBENKESHENGXUEXIZHONGGUOSHIDEJIAOCAILAIYONGDE,SUOYI,TADESHOUZHONGQUNBIQICHUNXUESHUZHUANZHU,HAIYAOGUANGFANDEDUO。


DUIYUZHEIYANGYIBUZUOPIN,WOCENGYOUGUOPODUOBUJIE。WOBUMINGBAIZUOZHEWEIHEZAICONGSHIXUESHUYANJIUDEZUIJIANIANLING,GEZHIQIZAIWOYANZHONGGENGZHONGYAODEXUESHUYANJIU,JIJIYUZHEIYANGYIJIANDUITAXUESHUFAZHANDAOLUWEIBIYOULIDEGONGZUO,HEKUANGZHUANXIEZHEIYANGDEZUOPINYEBINGBUQINGSONG,SHENZHIYOUXIECHILIBUTAOHAO。ERTAZIJIDUICIZEYOUZHEIYANGDEJIESHI,TASHUOZAITAKANLAI,JINGUANQIANLONGHUANGDISHIYIWEIZAISHIJIELISHIZHONG(QINGZHUYITASHUODEBUSHIHUOZHEBUJINJINSHIZAIZHONGGUOLISHIZHONG)FAHUIGUOZHONGDAZUOYONGDERENWU,DANQIJINWEIZHI,ZAIJUEDADUOSHUOUMEIGUOJIA,TAQUERENGRANXIANWEIRENZHI。ZHONGGUORENERSHUNENGXIANGDE“KANGYONGQIAN”SANSHI,DUIWAIGUORENERYAN,QUEYIRANXIANGDANGMOSHENG。ERDUISHIJIELISHILAISHUO,RUGUOQUESHAOLEDUIQIANLONGHUANGDIYUTADEQINGCHAODIGUODEXUSHU,ZEQUESHAOLEHENDADEYIBUFEN,ERQIESHIFEICHANGZHONGYAODEYIBUFEN。TAJINERLUNDAO,RUGUORENMENZHENDEXIANGYAOLIJIEJINTIANZHENGZAIJUEQIDEZHEIGEZHONGGUO,JIUBIXUDUIQIANLONGHUANGDISUOCHUDENEIGESHIDAIYUYIRENZHENDESHENSHI。SUOYI,ZUOWEIYIMINGLISHIXUEJIA,XIANGOUMEIDUZHEJIESHAOZHEIGERENWU,TIXINGRENMENGUANZHUZHEIGERENWUHEZHEIGESHIDAI,SHITADEZEREN。WOGANDONGYUTADEZHEIZHONGZERENGANHEWEICIFUCHUDEREQING,ZHEISHIWOYUANYIWEIBENSHUDEZHONGYIBENZUOXU,BINGXIANGZHONGGUOXUEJIEHEDUZHETUIJIANZHEIBUSHUDEYUANYIN。


BENSHUJIRANSHIWEIBUSHUXI、BULEJIEZHONGGUOLISHIDEOUMEIDUZHEERZUO,SUOYI,JINGUANDUIYUQIANLONGCHAODEZHONGZHONGBAIXIANG,ZUOZHEYEYOUSHENRUJUTIDEZHIZHAIHEPIPING,JIUXIANGZHONGGUOXUEZHECHANGZUODENEIYANG,DANSHIZUOZHEGENGZHELIDE,HAISHIXIANGDUZHEZHANSHIYIGEFANRONGQIANGSHENGDEDONGFANGDIGUO,TAJIANGYULIAOKUO、SHEHUIFUSHU、JINGJIFADA、WENHUAGAODUFANRONG。ZHEIGEDIGUOZHONGZUIFUSHUDENEIXIERENKONGZHIZHEDANGSHIDIQIUSHANGZUIDUODECAIFU,TADEXINGZHENGGUANLITIXIHEXIAOLV,SHIQITARENHEQIANXIANDAIGUOJIADOUWUFABINIDE。ZONGZHI,DUIQIANLONGZHEIGERENWUHEQINGDIGUO,BENSHUKANLAIYOUGUODUOYIMEIZHICI,DANJUWOLIJIE,ZHEIDAOBUSHICHUYUZUOZHEDEGERENPIANHAO,GENGBUSHIHUAZHONGQUCHONG,ERSHIBIAODALEZUOZHEDEYIZHONGYUANWANG。TAXIWANGRANGXIFANGDUZHEZHIDAO,ZAI18SHIJIDEDONGFANG,YETONGYANGYOUGUOZAISHIJIELISHISHANGDEYINGXIANGLIBUXUNYUXIFANGTONGSHIDAIRENHEDIGUODEWANGCHAO,ZHEIGEWANGCHAODETONGZHIZHECENGTONGGUOXUDUOFANGSHICANYULEQUANQIULISHIDEFAZHAN,BINGDUIZHEIZHONGFAZHANZUOCHULEZIJIDEGONGXIAN。ZHEISHIZHONGGUOXUEZHEHENSHAOYOURENZHICHUGUODE。


SHUODAOZHEILI,DUZHEDANGRANYEHUICHANSHENGYIGEWENTI。NEIJIUSHI,JIRANZHEIBUSHUSHIYOUMEIGUOXUEZHEXIANGBUSHUXIZHONGGUOLISHIDEDUZHEXIEDE,NEITADUIYUWOMENZHONGGUODEDUZHE,YOUYOUSHENMEYIYINI?YEJIUSHISHUO,YOUSHENMEBIYAOHUAFEIRUXUJINGLI,JIANGTAFANYICHENGZHONGWENBINGQIEZAIZHONGGUOCHUBANNI?


WOXIANG,SHOUXIANSHIGUANCHUANYUQUANSHUDEQUANQIUSHIDEXUSHIJIAODU。JUTIDISHUO,PIRUBENSHUYIKAIPIAN,JIUTIDAO“MANZHANGDE18SHIJI”(Long eighteenth century),XUZHIZHEIBINGBUJINZHIMOUGETEDINGDESHIJIANDUAN,ERSHISHIJIESHIYANJIUZHONGDEYIGEZHONGYAODEGAINIAN,SHENZHIYIJINGCHENGWEISHIXUEYANJIUZHONGDEYIGEZHUANMENLINGYU。DUIYUZHEIGEZAISHIJIESHIZHONGBEISHIWEIJUYOUDUYIWUERZHONGYAOXINGDE“GEMINGSHIDAI”,WUYIYINGGAIJIANGYUZHITONGSHIDAIDE、ZAIZHONGGUOLISHISHANGYEJIWEIZHONGYAODEQIANLONGSHIDAIBAOKUOJINQU,ERQIEYINGGAIJIANGHOUZHEZHIYUZHEIYANGDELISHIQINGJINGZHONGJINXINGGUANCHAHEFENXI。LINGRENYIHANDESHI,JINGUANZHEIGEGAINIANZAIOUMEIXUEJIEBEIGUANGFANRENZHIDESHIJIANYIJINGYOU20NIANSHENZHIGENGZHANG,YEYOUYIXIELUNSHUZAOYIYICHENGZHONGWEN,DANZAIZHONGGUOXUEJIEQIJINXIANYOUHUIYINGZHE。WOMENRENGRANXIGUANYUYI“KANGQIANSHENGSHI”DECHUANTONGSHUOFA,YIYIZHONGZISHUOZIHUADEFANGSHIMIAOSHUTA,ERMEIYOUYISHIDAO,CONGZHEILIRUSHOULAIKANDAIQINGCHAO,ERBUSHIJINJINJIANGQISHIWEIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHEHUIXUNHUANWANGFUDESHENGSHUAIGUILVLAIKANDAI,CAINENGGOUSHIWOMENDUIQIANLONGSHIDAIDEYANJIUYOUGENGDUOYUANGENGSHENCENGDELIJIEHESHIZHIXINGDETUPO。


JIANGQIANLONGCHAOYUQITAQIANXIANDAIDIGUOJINXINGBIJIAO,BINGBUJINJINSHIJIANDANDI、JIXIEDILUOLIECHUERZHEDETONGYI,TAXUYAOZUOZHEJUYOUDUIZHEIXIEBUTONGDIGUOGEZIBUTONGXINGZHIDESHENKEDEDONGCHALI,ZHEIYANGDEYAOQIUDUIRENHEYIGESHIXUEJIADOUGUOGAO,HEKUANGYEBUSHIQUQUYIBUXIAOSHUNENGGOUCHENGDANDERENWU。DANBENSHUZAIZHEIFANGMIAN,HAISHIJINKENENGDIZUOLEXIEYOUQIFAXINGDECHANGSHI。PIRUZAITIDAOMANZHOUDIGUOYUQITADIGUODEBUTONGSHI,SUIRANYEQIANGDIAOLEMANZHOUTEXINGYIJITONGZHIZHEWEIBAOCHIZHEIZHONGTEXINGSUOZUODENULI,DANYETEBIEQIANGDIAOLEQINGCHAOYUCHUANTONGZHONGYUANWANGCHAOZHIJIANGAODUDEYANXUXING。ZUOZHEZHUYIDAOZHONGYUANWANGCHAODELISHIWEIMANZHOUTONGZHIZHESUOTIGONGDEJIWEIZHONGYAODEYISHIXINGTAIXITONG,RENWEIZHEISHIDAOZHIQIANLONGHUANGDIBUNENGXIANGELUOSIDEBIDEDADINEIYANGKAIZHANDAGUIMOGEXINDEYUANYIN。ZHEIXIEBIJIAO,YIJIBIJIAOBEIHOUDESIKAOHEFENXI,SUIRANKENENGCUNZAIZHUDUOZHIDESHANGQUEZHICHU,DANHAISHINENGGOUCUSHIWOMENHUANYIGEXINDEJIAODU,CONGLINGYIGEFANGMIAN,LAIKANDAIQIANLONGNAIZHIYOUQINGYIDAIDEXINGZHI,FENXIQIANLONGCHAOCHANSHENGDEGEZHONGWENTIDEYUANYIN。


QIANMIANYIZAISHUOGUO,BENSHUBINGBUSHIYIBUCHUNXUESHUZHUANZHU,SHUZHONGSUOSHUQIANLONGMANZHANGYISHENGSUOSHEDEGEGEFANGMIAN、GEZHONGWENTI,DADUOSHUYEBINGFEILAIZIZUOZHEBENRENDEYANJIUCHENGGUO,ERSHICAIYONGLEJINERSANSHINIANLAIQINGSHIXUEJIEDEDALIANGYANJIUCHENGGUO,QIZHONGBAOKUOSHANGWENTIDAODEZHONGGUOXUEZHEDEYANJIU,DANGENGDUODEHAISHIMEIGUOXUEZHEDEZHUZUO。ZAIBENSHUDEDIJIUZHANGZHONG,ZUOZHEJIANGTASUOCAINADEGEZHONGCHENGGUODECHUCHUYIYIZUOLEJUTIEYAODESHUOMING,SHIZHEIYANGYIBUPIANFUBINGBUHENZHANGDESHU,JIHUCHENGWEIMEIGUOJINNIANGUANYUZHONGGUOQINGSHIYANJIUDEYIGEZHANSHI。TONGGUOBENSHU,WOMENKEYIDAZHILEJIEMEIGUOXUEJIEDUIYUQIANLONGDINAIZHIQIANLONGSUOCHUSHIDAI,ZHEZHONGGUANZHUDESHINAXIEFANGMIAN,ZAINAXIEFANGMIANYOUZHONGYAODEBEIGONGRENDECHENGGUO,YOUNAXIEBIJIAOZHONGDADEZHENGLUN,YOUYOUXIESHENMESHIXIAZUILIUXINGDEYITIHEMIANXIANG。NENGGOUZUODAOZHEIYIDIAN,YISHIYOUYUZUOZHEZUOWEIMEIGUOHAFODAXUEDONGYAXIHEFEIZHENGQINGDONGYAZHONGXINDEJIAOSHOU,DUONIANLAISHIZHONGWEIYUXUESHUYANJIUDEQIANYAN,JINSHUILOUTAI,YOUJIAOLIUYUYANJIUZHIBIAN。ZAIYIGE,BIANSHIZUOZHEDEGAIKUONENGLILE,YONGJIANJIEMINGLEDEWENZIJIANGZHEIXIEXUESHUCHENGGUOZHUNQUEDI、SHENGDONGDIBIAODACHULAI,ZHEISHIZUOZHEWEIZIJIDINGLIDEMUBIAO,WORENWEIZHEIGEMUBIAOSHIDADAOLEDE。DISAN,ZHEIYETIXIANLEZUOZHEDUIQITATONGXINGDEZUNZHONG。RANER,BENSHUDEZHONGYAOXING,ZAIWOKANLAIHAIBUZAIYUCI,ERZAIYUTAKEYIWEIZHONGGUOYANXISHIXUEYOUQISHIQINGSHIDENIANQINGXUEZHE,TIGONGYIGELEJIEMEIGUOZHONGGUOXUEYANJIUDETUJING。ZHEIDUIYUZUOZHE,KENENGSHIWUYIWEIZHI,WOQUERENWEI,ZHEISHIJIANGBENSHUYICHENGZHONGWENDEZUIYOUJIAZHIZHISUOZAI。


RUJINSHIJIEYIJINGJINRUQUANQIUHUASHIDAI,XUESHUYANJIUBAOKUOSHIXUE,DOUBUKEBIMIANDIMIANLINZHEBIXUYUGUOJIJIEGUIDEWENTI,LEJIEWOMENZAIGUOJISHANGDEDIWEIYECHENGWEIXUEZHEBIXURENZHENDUIDAIDEWENTI。ERZHEIGE“GUOJIDIWEI”BUJINBAOKUODANGXIA,ERQIEYEBAOKUOGUOQU,YEJIUSHILISHI。WOJUEDE,LITUKUAYUEZHONGMEIZHIJIANDEWENHUAZHANGAIJINXINGGENGSHENRUGUANGFANDEJIAOLIU,YINGGAISHIZHONGWAIXUEZHEGONGTONGDENULIFANGXIANG。


北京赛车网址 OULIDEJIAOSHOU,WOYIZHIANZHAOMEIGUORENDEXIGUAN,CHENGTAWEIMark。TAZAONIANJIUDUYUMEIGUOYELUDAXUESHI,JIUDUIZHONGGUOWENHUACHANSHENGNONGHOUXINGQU,YUANFUTAIBEIHELIAONINGDAXUE,GONGDUZHONGGUOYUYANHELISHI,BUJINXUEDEYIKOULIULIDEZHONGWENKOUYU,ERQIEZAIXUEXIMANWENSHANGYEPOXIAGONGFU,YINERNENGGOUSHUNLIYUEDUHANWENHEMANWENDEWENXIANDANGAN。TA1990NIANZAICILAIJINGJINXIUQIJIAN,JINGRIBENSHENTIANXINFUJIAOSHOUTUIJIANYINJIAN,ZHUANCHENGDENGMENBAIJIANWODEENSHI、ZHONGGUOZHUMINGQINGSHIZHUANJIAWANGZHONGHANJIAOSHOU,ZICHENGCONGXIANSHENGCHUSHOUYILIANGDUO,SUIDUIXIANSHENGZHIDIZILI,CONGCIYUWO,BIANYITONGMENSHIJIESHIDIXIANGCHU,ZHUANYANJINGYI24NIANYI。WOLIANGDEBOSHILUNWENXUANTIXIANGSI,TONGYANGCONGPASHUMANWENDANGANKAISHI,TONGYANGCONGYANJIUBAQIZHIDUQIBU,ERSHIYUNIANDUOYOUGUOCONG。CHANGYANDAO,DUOYIGEPENGYOUDUOYITIAOLU,WOZECHANGSHUO,DUOYIGEPENGYOUDUOYISHANCHUANG,MarkYUWO,JIUSHIYISHANKEYICONGZHEILIKANDAOGUOJIXUEJIEJINGCAIFENCHENGFENGJINGDECHUANGZI。WOWEIYOUZHEIYANGDESHIDIHEPENGYOUQINGXING,YEZHUYUANTAYUEZOUYUEHAO,WEIMEIGUODEZHONGGUOXUEYANJIUZUOCHUGENGDADEGONGXIAN。


北京赛车网址 2009NIANCHUN,WOCENGWEIWODELIANGMINGBOSHISHENGKAISHELEYIMEN“MEIGUOZHONGGUOXUE”KECHENG,JIHUADAILINGTAMENYUEDUYIXIEMEIGUOSHIXUEJIAZUIXINCHUBANDEYINGWENDEYANJIUCHENGGUO。WOMENYANJIUSHIJIWEINIANQINGTONGRENDEZHIHOUSHENGANXINGQU,ZHUDONGJIARUJINLAI,SUIHOUYOUYOUJIWEIQITADANWEIDENIANQINGXUEZHE、XUESHENGCANJIA,YUSHIZUCHENGDUSHUBAN,XIANGYUEYUMEIZHOUSANSHANGWUZAIWOMENYANJIUSHIDEBANGONGSHIJUHUI,SUODUZUOPINYOUDAJIAGONGTONGXUANDING,LUNLIUDANRENZHUJIANG。NIANQINGRENXINXILINGTONG、SIWEIHUOYUE,MEIDAOTAOLUNSHI,CHANGMIANHUOYANSUHUOJILIE,WOSUITIANWEIDAOSHI,QUESHENGANCONGTAMENNEILIHUODEDEQIFAHEJIAOYI,YIJINGCHAOGUOWODUITAMENDEJIYU,XINWEIXINXIZHIQINGNANYIYANBIAO。ZHEIGEDUSHUBANJIANCHIYINIANYOUYU,MarkZHEIBU《QIANLONGDI》,JISHIWOMENDANGNIANCENGJINGYUEDUBINGRENZHENTAOLUNGUODEZUOPINZHIYI。CIHOUSHUNIAN,WODEBOSHISHENGYIJINGZUYE,WOBENRENDUOSHUSHIJIANYOUZAITAIWANHUOGUOWAIYOUXUE,FANZHESHOUFANYI、XIAODUIYIJILIANXICHUBANZHUSHIYI,DOUSHIZHUWEINIANQINGRENGONGTONGNULIDEJIEGUO,JIAJIANFEIBOSHISUOFUCHUDEXINKUYOUDUO。RUJINBENSHUZHONGYIBENDEHUO北京赛车网址 DALIZHICHIBINGKAIYUCHUBAN,WOWEIMarkGAOXING,YEWEIZHUWEINIANQINGDEYIZHEGAOXING。YUANYICIWEN,JINIANWOYUMarkBINGZHUJUNGONGTONGDUGUODENEIXIESHIGUANG。


北京赛车网址 SHIWEIXU。


北京赛车网址 2014NIAN3YUEYUBEIJINGSHANGDIYUSUO


BENWENWEI《QIANLONGDI》([MEI]OULIDEZHU,北京赛车网址 )DEXUYAN。

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